Publikationen auf der Grundlage von ESPAD-Daten
Artikel in Fachzeitschriften
Müller, S., Piontek, D., Pabst, A. & Kraus, L. (2011). The relationship between alcohol consumption and perceived drunkenness: A multilevel cross-national comparison in samples of adolescents. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 46 (4), 399-406.
Aims: Alcohol consumption seems to be the best predictor of drunkenness and evidence suggests that individual and country factors influence the perception of drunkenness. This study examines if the relationship between volume of alcohol consumption and perceived drunkenness varies across European countries in samples of adolescents. Methods: Data came from the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). The analytical sample consisted of n = 60,114 (93%) 15-16-year-old students in 24 countries reporting alcohol consumption on the last drinking occasion. At the individual level, perceived drunkenness on the last drinking occasion was measured with a 10-point scale, alcohol consumption on the last drinking occasion with a beverage-specific quantity index. Six individual characteristics were assessed and used as control variables. At the country level, a total of five country-level variables were included in the study. Data were analysed using multilevel regression models simultaneously considering both individual level (Level 1) and group (country) level (Level 2) variables. Results: The relationship between alcohol consumption and perceived drunkenness varied across countries. This variation could partly be explained by drinking patterns and geographical region. Conclusion: The perception of the effects of alcohol in terms of drunkenness seems to vary across countries. Future studies should develop sound indicators of cultural differences accounting for this variation.
Müller, S., Piontek, D., Pabst, A., Baumeister, S. E. & Kraus, L. (2010). Changes in alcohol consumption and beverage preference among adolescents after the introduction of the alcopops tax in Germany. Addiction, 105 (7), 1205-1213.
Aims The aim of this study is to assess the contribution of the alcopops tax to changes in alcohol consumption and beverage preference among adolescents in Germany. We hypothesize that the decrease of alcohol intake by alcopops is substituted by an increase of alcohol intake by other alcoholic beverages. Design Data came from the German 2003 (n = 10 551) and 2007 (n = 10 598) cross-sectional study of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). Participants A propensity score-matched subsample of 9(th) and 10(th) graders (n = 4694) was used for the analyses. Measurement Alcohol consumption within the last 7 days was assessed by a beverage-specific quantity-frequency index. An individual's beverage preference was assigned for the beverage that had the highest share in total alcohol consumption. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess changes in alcohol consumption; changes in beverage preference were tested using multinomial logistic regression. Findings While alcopop consumption declined after the alcopops tax was implemented, consumption of spirits increased. Changes in beverage preference revealed a decrease in alcopop preference and an increase in the preference for beer and spirits. Conclusions Results indicate a partial substitution of alcopops by spirits and a switch in preference to beverages associated with riskier drinking patterns. Effective alcohol policies to prevent alcohol-related problems should focus upon the reduction of total alcohol consumption instead of regulating singular beverages.
Kraus, L., Metzner, C. & Piontek, D. (2010). Alcopops, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in a sample of German adolescents: Is there an alcopop-specific effect? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 110 (1-2), 15-20.
AIMS: The objective of the present analysis was to investigate the impact of alcopops on drinking behaviour and alcohol-related negative consequences by controlling for alcohol consumption and the share of alcopops in total ethanol intake. METHODS: Data from the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) in Germany were used. The final dataset comprised students aged 15-17 years who reported to have drunk alcohol in the past 7 days (n=5509). MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol consumption was assessed by beverage-specific quantity measures for the last 7 days. Individuals were categorised into "non-alcopop" and "alcopop consumers"; according to the share in total ethanol intake, alcopop users were further divided into "only-alcopop", "mix-alcopop" and "mix-consumers". Analogous groups were constructed for the other beverages. Outcome measures were age of first alcohol use and drunkenness, frequency of drinking, binge drinking and drunkenness and alcohol-related problems. Hypotheses were tested using proportional hazard models, linear and logistic regressions. FINDINGS: Controlling for overall volume few differences in consumption and problem measures were found when alcopop and non-alcopop users were compared. Further differentiation of the alcopop group also revealed only few differences. Similar associations were found for the other beverages. Only-alcopop and only-wine drinking was associated with less risky consumption patterns and negative consequences. CONCLUSIONS: An alcopop-specific effect on problematic drinking behaviour and negative consequences could not be identified. Concerted preventive actions tackling alcohol as a whole are needed in order to gain substantial effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in adolescents.
Piontek, D., Kraus, L., Pabst, A., Müller, S. & Legleye, S. (2009). Verbreitung und Einflussfaktoren cannabis-bezogener Probleme bei Jugendlichen. Ergebnisse der Europäischen Schülerstudie zu Alkohol und anderen Drogen (ESPAD) in Deutschland . Suchttherapie, 10 (4), 162-168.
Ziel: Ziel der vorliegenden Analyse ist es, das Ausmaß cannabis-bezogener Probleme bei Jugendlichen sowie deren Einflussfaktoren zu beschreiben. Methodik: Es wurden Daten von 1 933 aktuellen Cannabis-Konsumenten aus der Europäischen Schulerstudie zu Alkohol und anderen Drogen 2007 (ESPAD) analysiert. Cannabis-bezogene Probleme wurden mit dem Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) erfasst. Ergebnisse: Die am häufigsten genannten Probleme waren Interventionen der Familie/Freunde sowie Gedächtnisschwierigkeiten. Für 9,3% der 12-Monats-Konsumenten lag ein Hoch-Risiko-Konsum vor. Signifikante Prädiktoren waren Geschlecht, Zigarettenkonsum, anderes Problemverhalten sowie konsumierende Freunde. Schlussfolgerung: Die Identifikation von Personen mit problematischem Cannabis-Konsum ist wichtig, um gezielt Frühinterventionen anbieten zu können.
Link, T. (2008). Youthful intoxication: A cross-cultural study of drinking among German and American adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 362-370.
Objective: This study explores whether and what differences exist between German and American adolescents on levels of alcohol use and on measures of protective factors as well as risk factors with regard to alcohol use consonant with societal and cultural differences. Method: A series of negative binomial regression models of adolescent alcohol use is examined with data from Germany and the United States from the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs and Monitoring the Future. Results: Despite mean differences in drinking, findings emphasize the significance of deviant peers and perceived risks in both populations. Whereas deviant peers strongly mediate the effects of social bonds, perceived risk and opportunity influence other measures in the model only slightly. Several of the interaction terms used to assess cross-cultural variation are statistically significant. Conclusions: Empirically, the current results lend support to the cross-cultural generalizability of the applied criminological theoretical constructs to German adolescents. Theoretically, the findings suggest that any explanation of cross-cultural differences regarding a specific type of problem behavior should include explicit arguments about why the supposed causes are expected to apply to that specific type of behavior in the particular cultural context.